Muon Chambers Department


Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute


(since January 2024, part of the Department of Radiation Detectors of the HEPD)

    The Department of muon chambers ( MCD) , with  V.S. Kozlov in charge, was formed in 1999 on the base of  the group of muon chambers (MCG).  

    At a period from 1993 to 1999 the MCG headed by V.V. Astashin was mostly engaged in designing and manufacture of multiwire detectors of various types, such as proportional chambers (PC), drift chambers (DC), cathode strip chambers (CSC) and others which were used in experiments either at the PNPI accelerator or abroad.

    From 1999 to 2004, the team of MCD worked in the context of the participation of PNPI in the CERN project of LHC and their main activity focused on the production of CSC's for CMS Endcap Muon System. A start of mass production of CSC's for ME2, ME3, ME4 stations was made in 2001. During a period of four years, with the aid of the colleagues from Lab of mezoatoms, 120 cameras of 3 types were assembled, tested and delivered to the CERN . The works on the CSC production   ran    in   close  contact    with   partners    from    CERN    and    FNAL   (see Photo Album 1).

     In 2005 the MCD turned to mass production of multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) with anode readout intended to be used at LHCb project. For the purpose of production two manufacture site were organized: Factory I (Group of muon detectors headed by Bochin B.V.) and FactoryII (at MCD). Design and assembly technology  were developed in the Group of muon detectors.    

   The main technological equipment was provided by CERN. Chambers of 3 types were produced: M2/R4, M3/R4, M4/R4.By the time of the completion of the LHCb program (March 2007) 660 cameras were made in the aggregate at both sites. The rate of assembly process including   a  full   cycle   of   testing   was  one  chamber  per   day  for   each   site (see Photo Album 2).

    After completing the LHCb program the Group of muon detectors has become a part of the DMC.

    Our technicians actively participated in the test procedures and installation works at CMS and LHCb detectors (see Photo Albums 3 and 4).

      In 2012, 2013. our employees were engaged in the assembly of CSC's for the second ring of ME4 station of the CMS Endcap Muon System. With their direct participation 76 ME4 /2 chambers were assembled and tested (see Photo Album 5).

      In 2005,  MCD  participated  in  the  creation  of the experimental setup for the experiment "EPECUR" (see Photo Album 6).

      At a period of 2006 - 2008. 8 drift chambers of original design were manufactured. These chambers had a  hexagonal  structure  of  electric  field  and  the sensitive   areas   400 x  600 mm(2 chambers),  800 x 1200 mm2. (6 chambers). Chambers successfully worked in the experiment for measurement of the differential cross section of elastic pion - proton scattering at the ITEP accelerator.

    The drift chambers of large format with a hexagonal structure which have been designed at the MCD in the last few years have still more large zone of sensitivity up to 1632 x 2448 mm2. These chambers,  in  particular,    are   destined  for   the   experiment   "EPECUR"   for   research   of   the   inelastic  reactions   π - pKS0Λ.

    By    the   end  of  2015,   all   4 chambers  needed for  the  experiment   was      manufactured   and      tested.

   A distinctive feature of these drift chambers, besides the size, is the presence of zone with size roughly 50 x 50 mm2 with zero gas gain (so-called "Beam Killer") in the central part of the sensitive area. This is achieved by local increasing the diameter of sensitive wires up to 150 microns by galvanic method.

  Testing of the collected chambers with readout electronics was carried out together with our colleagues from the Laboratory of Meson Physics headed by Sumachev V.V.

   In the framework of the collaboration CB ELSA, based on accelerator ELSA, in 2007 an agreement was concluded between PNPI and Rhine Friedrich Wilhelm University (RFWU- Bonn, Germany ) for the development and production of large-format drift chambers for the SFB/TR-16/B1 magnetic spectrometer (see Photo Album 7).

   A period of 2008 - 2010. a total of 8 drift chambers of a hexagonal structure of  electric field was designed, manufactured and shipped to Bonn together with associated electronics developed and produced by the Department of Radio Electronics HEPD (Golovtsov V.A. in head).
    All the chambers are of an  identical design with a size of the sensitive area of 2456 x 1233 mm2. In two chambers of УYФ type the wires are arranged horizontally. To exclude unacceptable sagging of the wires   the  support   of  original  design was   used.  All  the chambers in  its central part have  area  of  50x 50  mm2 with zero gas gain.
   At present the chambers mentioned above are successfully used in the experiment B1 at magnetic spectrometer.

     For 2015-2016 in the framework of the program "Development of the detector devices of the muon system of LHCb superdetector" MCD developed and produced muon chambers  M4R2, M2R3, M3R3, M2R4. The cambers were manufactured by the technology of high reliability, developed in the MCD.  Currently 24 chambers delivered to CERN as a reserve (see Photo Album 8).  




PNPI, Gatchina, ST-Petersburg, 188300, Russia;
Telephone: +7 (813  71)  46361,   Fax: +7 (813  71)  39222

Last update on: January 30,  2018