) ) was founded in 1972 year. The department was originally called “Group of Gas-discharge Devices”. Dr. A.G.Krivshich have been the head of this department since 1982.
The first Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) were designed and produced in PNPI by this team in 1973.
MWPC were used at series of experiments on small-angle scattering of hadrons (PNPI, Saclay, Protvino and
CERN) on the lightest nuclei at intermediate and high energy.
(See article "Main Scientific Activities 1971-1996" - "Elastic diffraction scattering of hadron on the lightest nuclei." p. 162
The design and production of the Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD) become an important achievement
of the TDD. Their contribution to the studies of hyperon rare decays at FNAL (E-715, E-761, E-781)
was decisive. The rejection coefficient obtained by the TRD is one of the highest and the TRD itself is biggest in the world.
(See article "Main Scientific Activities 1971-1996" - "Study of rare hyperon decays". p. 41
In the 1980’s a high accuracy tracking system based on MWPC was produced in TDD for the 1GeV proton channeling experiment. A space resolution of 60 microns provided the detection of the channeling effect in the bent crystal.
(See article "Main Scientific Activities 1971-1996" - "Crystaloptics of high energy particles". p. 129
For the experiment L3 on accelerator LEP in CERN in TDD was designed a tracking detector involved in the experimental set up. To measure a precise coordinate of the crossing charged particle a drift time of the track electrons have been measured. Next coordinate of the particle was measured by the charge division method. This detector successfully operated for 10 years in L3 experiment and was used for data analysis.
(See article "Main Scientific Activities 1971-1996" - "Research at CERN large electron-position collider. L3 experiment." p. 65
At the beginning of 1990’s, a coordinate system of 18 MWPC planes have been designed and manufactured for the HERMES experiment in DESY (Germany). The system of MWPC successfully operated inside of the dipole magnet gap with a magnet field of B=0.5 T during 13 years.
(See article "Main Scientific Activities 2002-2006" - "Hermes experiment at DESY: selected analysis results." p. 97
In frame of the R&D activities for the experiments on LHC collider in TDD were performed aging mechanism studies of the gas-discharge detectors. A new aging mechanism of the anode wires was observed and called – “swelling” during this work. The obtained results were used in creation of the tracking detectors for the ATLAS, CMS and LHC-B experiments.
(See article "Main Scientific Activities 1997-2001 - "Anode wire swelling – a new phenomenon in anode wire aging under high-accumulated dose. p. 329
Since of 1995 to the present TDD participates in scientific program
of mu-capture in hydrogen study. A coordinate tracking system including MWPC and Time Projection Chamber (TPC) have been designed for experimental set up. The working gas of TPC is pure hydrogen at 10 bar. The results obtained in experiment are included in the Particle Data Group.
(See article "Main Scientific Activities 1997-2001 - "Final results of µ3He-capture experiment and perspectives for µp-capture studies."
(See Historical overview of main activities
At this time, the Tracking Detector Department is participating in several international experiments carried out at leading world scientific centers: TOTEM (CERN, Switzerland), Muon-capture (PSI, Switzerland), OLYMPUS (DESY, Germany).
The TDD department actively participates in the development of the gas filled neutron detectors. The main goal of this research work is the creation of the thermal neutron detection complex for the reactor PIK in PNPI which is expected to start operation in 2012.
(See more Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 581 (2007) p. 123–127 - "Two-dimensional detector of thermal neutrons"
In addition, TDD carries out studies of the processes related to aging of the gas discharge detectors. Over years of work, a unique measuring set up has been assembled to monitor the aging processes. The technique of recovery of aged detectors using glow discharge is in development in our department.
(See article Main Scientific Activities 2002-2006". - "Investigation of boronization in GLOBUS-M TOKAMAK and gas-filled detectors using the electrostatic accelerator beams." р. 296
(See old site - "Ageing Test Station"
In the TDD a technique to recover a swollen anode wire in a proportional counter using a gas discharge treatment in 80%CF4+20%CO2 was developed and tested. Recovery is shown to be reliable. The process can be repeated multiple times and significantly extends the life time of the detector.
(See article “Main Scientific Activities” (2007-2012), pages 383-390". - "RECOVERY OF AGED ANODE WIRES IN PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS USING A NEGATIVE CORONA DISCHARGE IN 80%CF4+20%CO2, G.E. Gavrilov, A.G. Krivshich, D.A. Maysuzenko, A.A. Fetisov, N.Yu. Shvetsova).
From 1973 to the present, most of the particle detectors for the high-energy physics experiments, carried out by PNPI HEPD in different scientific centers have been designed and produced by Tracking Detectors Department.
(See Current Projects