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  Main directions of HEPD PNPI

P r o t o n    t h e r a p y    i n    P N P I

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The basic directions of applied researches in HEPD - working out of methods of creation of carbon matrixes for long-term storage and a transmutation of long-living radio nuclides and the proton therapy (protonnaya_terapiya) at PNPI synchrocyclotron.

1.    Working out of methods a long-living nuclear waste in carbon matrixes for their storage and a transmutation.   (See more... - russian version)

          2.    Condition and prospect of development of nuclear medicine and hadronic therapy in PNPI.   
(See more ... Abstract    and    Supplement - see russian version).

               Since 1975, a Center of Ster eotaxic Proton Therapy (CSPT) is operating at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) exploiting a 1000 MeV proton beam from the PNPI synchro- cyclotron. The center is sp ecialized on treatment of some brain diseases, such as pituitary ade- nomas and arteriovenous malformations. Small s cattering of the 1000 MeV proton beam in the tissue in combination with the irradiation rotation technique provide high ratio of the radiation doze in the irradiation zone to that at the head surface. The f unctioning of CSPT is performed in close cooperation with the Russian Scientif ic Center of Radiology and Surgical Technology (RSCRST). At present, 1394 patients have been treated in this cente r. This method (Gatchinsky method) of high energy proton therapy, being unique in the world practice, is distinguished by high safety of the irradiation process and high medica l efficiency. However, its application is limited so far to several brain diseases.
         In addition to the existing CSPT center, a project of the universal center of proton therapy with the proton beam energy variable in the range 80-230 MeV is under realization at PNPI- RSCRST. This center should provide th e North-West region of Russi a a possibility to treat a wide spectrum of oncological diseases. The cent er is created on the ba sis of two proton accel erators: a high current cyclotron C-80 (energy 80 MeV, current 100 mkA) and a fast cycling proton synchrotron S-230 with variable energy from 120 MeV to 230 MeV. The cyclotron C-80 is used as the injector to the synchrotron S-230. In additi on, a proton beam extracted from C-80 will be used for eyes therapy (high precision 80 MeV beam with low intensity), while the high intensity (100 mkA) 80 MeV proton beam will be used for production of radioisotopes for nu clear medicine.
         The proton synchrotron S-230 wa s designed at G.N. Budker Nu clear Physics Institute of SB RAS. Its repetition rate is 1 Hz with a possibility for a 10 % modulation of the energy of the extracted beam at the rate of 10 Hz. The irradiation stand will be e quipped with the GANTRY system. As the result, the four-dimension irradi ation will be provided via variation of the beam in X,Y,Z, and time, that, in particular, make s possible synchronization of the beam stop posi tion with the position of the organs m oving in course of irradiation.
         The cyclotron C-80 will provide production of a variety of ra dioisotopes for medical ap plications. In particular, production of the 82Sr 82Rb generators could allow to use the positron- emission tomography (PET) in the medical centers which has no special cyclotrons for produc- tion of the PET emitters.
         PNPI can also produce radioisotopes in nuclear reactors. This line becomes especially promising after startup of the high flux reactor PIK at PNPI. The plans include production of super clean short-lived isotopes without hot ch emistry using the on-li ne mass separator which selects the desired isotopes direct ly from the target placed in the neutron channel of the reactor.
         At present, the North-West region ha s already some experience in production and applica tion of the radioisotopes in medical practice. In particular, the isotopes 99 and 125I, produced at PNPI at the existing nuclear reactor WWR-M , are supplied to the Radium Institute in St. Petersburg for production of various radiopharm prep arations. Also, the isotope 18F is pro duced at RSCRST for a PET operating in this center.

         3.    Nuclear Physics - Nuclear Medicine.
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Recent decades have seen the introduction of intensive methods of nuclear physics and high technologies in the field directly related to the quality of human life and, in particular, with the development of entirely new branches of medicine. Using the fundamental achievements of nuclear science was the basis for the creation of an entirely new direction of modern medicine - Nuclear Medicine The uniqueness of nuclear medicine techniques is that they allow you to diagnose functional abnormalities of life of the very early stages of the disease when a person does not feel symptoms. This makes it easier to detect and treat a wide variety of diseases, substantial savings on treatment. (See more... - russian version)


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Last update on:   by   Svetlana F. Udalova